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First year of production:
Kindermann & Co , Berlin , Germany
Serial nr:

In 1895 the Kindermann company in Berlin marketed this charming clone of the Hall typewriter. The principle of operation and even the order in which characters were presented were identical to the Hall.

When selecting a character from the square index on top of the machine, a rubber type sheet would shift into position to bring the selected character between the print head and the paper (see detail in picture 3). By pushing down the entire top of the machine the character was stamped onto the paper. The overall design of the Graphic was somewhat heavier than the Hall and it was elaborately decorated (Pic 2).

The Graphic appeared on the market nine years after the introduction of the Hall in the United states, and at just about the time when the Hall itself was on its way out. The Graphic was not an overwhelming success on the German market and the machine is considered very rare. (Note that the serial number on this machine is 14052. It was not uncommon for manufacturers to start counting at a high level, to raise the impression of higher production than was actually realized. This may have been the case here.)

The Kindermann company finally passed the production on to a second company (Bonnin), and an improved version of the original Graphic appeared that produced more even work. Kindermann went on to produce dark room equipment for many years.

Courtesy of: Costa collection